Monday, November 7, 2011

Arthur Johnson, a civil rights icon and comrade of Martin Luther King Jr., dies at 85 | Detroit Free Press |

Arthur Johnson, a civil rights icon and comrade of Martin Luther King Jr., dies at 85 | Detroit Free Press |

Arthur Johnson, a civil rights icon and comrade of Martin Luther King Jr., dies at 85

10:40 AM, Nov. 2, 2011 |
Arthur Johnson was praised for his integrity, loyalty and commitment to Detroit. / 2003 photo by KIRTHMON F. DOZIER/Detroit Free Pres

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A crowd of movers and shakers was exiting an event at the White House during the Clinton administration. Among them was Wayne State University President Irving Reid.

As Reid was leaving, civil rights leader and Clinton adviser Vernon Jordan called out, "When you get back to Detroit, be sure to tell Arthur Johnson hello!"

"He didn't say the mayor," Reid recalled. "He didn't say the governor. He said tell Arthur Johnson. I think that speaks volumes about who Arthur Johnson was. He was a quiet man of enormous strength."

Human rights activist, educator and arts advocate Arthur Johnson died at home Tuesday after an extended illness, prompted in part by the debilitating effects of Parkinson's disease, said Trevor Coleman, family spokesman and former Free Press editorial writer. Johnson was 85; he would have turned 86 on Saturday.

"When I came to Detroit there were three men I looked up to: Coleman Young, Damon Keith and Art Johnson," said Detroit Mayor Dave Bing, upon learning of Johnson's passing. "They were the kind of role models who represent what we expect in strong black men. They were sensitive to the issues facing our people and weren't afraid to stand up and speak out.

"Whether it was leading the NAACP, Wayne State or in the arts community, Art was always there," Bing said. "He had a tremendous positive impact on this city, and will be greatly missed."

In recent years, Johnson was best known as a university administrator. He retired as senior vice president of Wayne State University in 1995 after 23 years in various high-ranking posts.

But his impact was perhaps greatest as a stalwart soldier in the battle to end racial discrimination in housing, public education, restaurants and other public places in Detroit -- the adopted home he came to love and fight tirelessly for after moving to the city from Georgia in 1950.

He was born in Americus, Ga., and educated at Morehouse College and Atlanta University, both in Atlanta. Johnson was a trusted adviser to Mayor Coleman A. Young and a comrade of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Johnson and King graduated in 1948 from Morehouse, a historically black college.

"Art rose from poverty to prominence, largely on the strength of his intellect, integrity, determination and compassion for all people," said longtime friend Judge Damon Keith of the U.S. 6th Circuit Court of Appeals.

Johnson was a "man of absolute integrity, loyalty and commitment to this city and community," Keith said.

"There was nothing too small or too big for Art to step forward if he thought it was in the best interest of this city and the constituents he served," said former Detroit Mayor Dennis Archer. "And he was one of the most levelheaded people you ever want to see. His demeanor was such that he was never loud or boisterous; he was always very measured and effective."

Archer said Johnson's memoir, "Race and Remembrance" (Wayne State University Press, $24.95), published in 2008, ought to be required reading for all Detroiters.

"It is a must-read for our young people because it gives a flavor of the challenges many black people faced living in the city of Detroit, not to mention his own personal challenges; yet he went on to triumph and make this place a better place for all of us," Archer said.

Former Detroit City Councilwoman Sheila Cockrel described Johnson as "one of the lions of Detroit's civil rights movement. ... His own life story showed that you can overcome the awful viciousness of blatant racism."

The national NAACP recruited Johnson to Detroit in 1950 to become its executive secretary. As the organization's top staff person, Johnson held the post for 14 years. Under his leadership, the organization became one of the most respected in the nation.

He was president of the Detroit Branch NAACP in 1987-93.

Johnson was one of the creators of the Freedom Fund Dinner, which continues to be one of the largest fund-raising events of any civil rights group.

"He was a man of high integrity and commitment to civil rights," said civic leader Mary Blackmon, a former board member of the Detroit branch. "He epitomized what a leader should do in helping to make the NAACP responsive to the community, as well as fighting on behalf of the community as a whole. He used whatever resources he had to elevate the mission of the NAACP.

"And he was able to do things others couldn't do because people respected him so much."Johnson also served as deputy director of the Michigan Civil Rights Commission. In 1966, he was appointed assistant superintendent of the Detroit Public Schools, becoming the first African American to hold the post.

Sen. Carl Levin, D-Mich., said: “Arthur Johnson’s passing is a deep personal loss for me and my wife, Barbara. While his manner was gentle, his drive to achieve justice was strong and effective. He was a close personal friend of ours, and a great neighbor to us in Green Acres in Northwest Detroit during the 1960s and ’70s. I also had the privilege of working closely with him when I was the general counsel for the Michigan Civil Rights Commission and he was the deputy director. His work for the NAACP was legendary. We will miss him terribly, as will all who knew him and all who strive for justice.”

A huge fan of the arts, Johnson viewed opening the arts to the masses as an extension of his civil rights work.

He was on the board of the Detroit Symphony Orchestra and pushed for diversity within the orchestra on stage and among concertgoers.

He encouraged the DSO to perform works of African-American composers, and encouraged the organization to hire African-American musicians and conductors.

"Arthur Johnson, for many years, has been the catalyst for accessibility and inclusion for the entire community to the full breadth of the arts experience in Detroit," said Wayne Brown, director of music and opera for the National Endowment for the Arts in Washington, D.C.

Brown was a DSO administrator in the 1970s.

"He was a real champion for inclusion before the establishment of formalized programs that exist throughout the country today," Brown said. "He wanted the orchestra to be a resource more broadly embraced by the entire community.

"Through his leadership, the Detroit community has been able to benefit from the arts in ways that are not obvious," Brown said. "He had a persistent drive to advance the arts. I wish I could clone Arthur Johnson so we would have that voice and passion for the arts all over the country."

Peter Cummings, chairman emeritus of the DSO, called Johnson "one of the most inspiring and loving people I've ever met."

He credited Johnson with being the impetus for the Classical Roots series -- an annual concert in February in which the DSO pays tribute to African-American composers.

"A lot of the vitality of the orchestra resulted from Arthur acting as the African-American conscience of the institution," Cummings said.

Cummings recalled being at a retreat where several people were discussing the progress of the DSO in including African-American music and musicians.

"I remember Art put his hand up to speak -- and when Arthur speaks, people stop and listen. He said, 'We're still not doing enough.' And that was Arthur to me. He was always saying, we can do more. We can do better whether it's in the role of African Americans in the orchestra, the role of the Festival of the Arts in Midtown or for the City of Detroit. He always believed we needed to and could do more."

In Johnson's book, he wrote that one of the accomplishments he is most proud of is the creation of the Detroit Festival of the Arts, which annually presents a variety of art free in the city's Cultural Center.

"It's because of Art's affection for the festival that I made it a part of my inaugural activities," said Reid, who became president of Wayne State in 1998.

"I always felt the hot breath of Arthur Johnson on my neck as I was making decisions," Reid said. "He became the conscience of the university for so many of us who he taught that serving the community was not just our mission, but our destiny. He was never asking anything for himself; it was always what could we do for others, for the city, and the broader Detroit community."

Johnson is survived by his wife of 31 years, Chacona, and three children, Wendell Johnson, Brian Johnson and Angela Sewell. He was preceded in death by three sons, Averell, Carl and David.

Funeral arrangements are pending at Swanson Funeral Home of Detroit.

Staff writer Naomi R. Patton contributed to this report.

Saturday, October 15, 2011

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Friday, October 7, 2011

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Wednesday, October 5, 2011

Steve Jobs - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Steve Jobs - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaSteven Paul "Steve" Jobs (February 24, 1955 – October 5, 2011[6]) was an American entrepreneur and inventor. He was co-founder,[7] chairman, and former chief executive officer ofApple Inc.[8][9] Jobs also previously served as chief executive ofPixar Animation Studios; he became a member of the board of directors of The Walt Disney Company in 2006, following the acquisition of Pixar by Disney. He was credited in Toy Story(1995) as an executive producer.[10]

In the late 1970s, Jobs, with Apple co-founder Steve Wozniak,Mike Markkula,[7] and others, designed, developed, and marketed one of the first commercially successful lines of personal computers, the Apple II series. In the early 1980s, Jobs was among the first to see the commercial potential of Xerox PARC's mouse-driven graphical user interface, which led to the creation of the Macintosh.[11][12] After losing a power struggle with the board of directors in 1985,[13][14] Jobs resigned from Apple and founded NeXT, a computer platform development company specializing in the higher-education and business markets. Apple's subsequent 1996 buyout of NeXT brought Jobs back to the company he co-founded, and he served as its CEO from 1997 until 2011. In 1986, he acquired the computer graphics division of Lucasfilm Ltd which was spun off as Pixar Animation Studios.[15] He remained CEO and majority shareholder at 50.1% until its acquisition by The Walt Disney company in 2006.[16] Consequently Jobs became Disney's largest individual shareholder at 7% and a member of Disney's Board of Directors.[17][18][19][20]

His aim to develop products that were both functional and elegant earned him a devoted following.[21]

On August 24, 2011, Jobs announced his resignation from his role as Apple's CEO. In his letter of resignation, Jobs strongly recommended that the Apple executive succession plan be followed and Tim Cook be named as his successor. Per his request, Jobs was appointed chairman of Apple's board of directors.[22][23][24][25] On October 5, 2011 Apple announced that Steve Jobs had died at the age of 56. [26]



[edit]Early years

Waist-high portrait of man in his fifties wearing a black turtle-neck shirt and blue jeans, gesturing in front of a blue curtain
Steve Jobs at theWWDC 07

Jobs was born in San Francisco[1] and was adopted by Paul and Clara Jobs (née Hagopian)[27][unreliable source?] of Mountain View, California, who named him Steven Paul. Paul and Clara later adopted a daughter, whom they named Patti. Jobs' biological parents – Abdulfattah John Jandali,[28] a Syrian Muslim[29]graduate student from Homs who later became a political science professor,[30]and Joanne Simpson (née Schieble), an American graduate student[29] who went on to become a speech language pathologist[31] – later married, giving birth to and raising Jobs' biological sister, the novelist Mona Simpson.[32][33][34][35][36][37]

Jobs attended Cupertino Junior High School and Homestead High School inCupertino, California,[21] and frequented after-school lectures at the Hewlett-Packard Company in Palo Alto, California. He was soon hired there and worked with Steve Wozniak as a summer employee.[38] In 1972, Jobs graduated from high school and enrolled in Reed College in Portland, Oregon. Although he dropped out after only one semester,[39] he continued auditing classes at Reed, such as one in calligraphy, while sleeping on the floor in friends' rooms, returning Coke bottles for food money, and getting weekly free meals at the local Hare Krishna temple.[14] Jobs later said, "If I had never dropped in on that single course in college, the Mac would have never had multiple typefaces or proportionally spaced fonts."[14]

In autumn 1974, Jobs returned to California and began attending meetings of the Homebrew Computer Clubwith Wozniak. He took a job as a technician at Atari, a manufacturer of popular video games, with the primary intent of saving money for a spiritual retreat to India.

Jobs then traveled to India to visit the Neem Karoli Baba[40] at his Kainchi Ashram with a Reed College friend (and, later, the first Apple employee), Daniel Kottke, in search of spiritual enlightenment. He came back aBuddhist with his head shaved and wearing traditional Indian clothing.[41][42] During this time, Jobs experimented with psychedelics, calling his LSD experiences "one of the two or three most important things [he had] done in [his] life".[43] He has said that people around him who did not share his countercultural roots could not fully relate to his thinking.[43]

Jobs returned to his previous job at Atari and was given the task of creating a circuit board for the gameBreakout. According to Atari founder Nolan Bushnell, Atari had offered $100 for each chip that was eliminated in the machine. Jobs had little interest or knowledge in circuit board design and made a deal with Wozniak to split the bonus evenly between them if Wozniak could minimize the number of chips. Much to the amazement of Atari, Wozniak reduced the number of chips by 50, a design so tight that it was impossible to reproduce on an assembly line. At the time, Jobs told Wozniak that Atari had only given them $700 (instead of the actual $5000) and that Wozniak's share was thus $350.[44][45][46][47][48][49]


[edit]Beginnings of Apple Computer

Two men in their fifties shown full length sitting in red leather chairs smiling at each other
Steve Jobs and Bill Gates at the fifthD: All Things Digitalconference (D5) in 2007

In 1976, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak and Ronald Wayne,[50] with later funding from a then-semi-retired Intel product-marketing manager and engineer A.C. "Mike" Markkula Jr.,[7] founded Apple. Prior to co-founding Apple, Wozniak was an electronics hacker. Jobs and Wozniak had been friends for several years, having met in 1971, when their mutual friend, Bill Fernandez, introduced 21-year-old Wozniak to 16-year-old Jobs. Steve Jobs managed to interest Wozniak in assembling a computer and selling it. As Apple continued to expand, the company began looking for an experienced executive to help manage its expansion.

In 1978, Apple recruited Mike Scott from National Semiconductor to serve as CEO for what turned out to be several turbulent years. In 1983, Steve Jobs luredJohn Sculley away from Pepsi-Cola to serve as Apple's CEO, asking, "Do you want to sell sugar water for the rest of your life, or do you want to come with me and change the world?"[51][52] The following year, Apple aired aSuper Bowl television commercial titled "1984." At Apple's annual shareholders meeting on January 24, 1984, an emotional Jobs introduced the Macintosh to a wildly enthusiastic audience; Andy Hertzfeld described the scene as "pandemonium."[53] The Macintosh became the first commercially successful small computer with agraphical user interface. The development of the Mac was started by Jef Raskin, and eventually taken over by Jobs.

While Jobs was a persuasive and charismatic director for Apple, some of his employees from that time had described him as an erratic and temperamental manager. An industry-wide sales slump towards the end of 1984 caused a deterioration in Jobs's working relationship with Sculley, and at the end of May 1985 – following an internal power struggle and an announcement of significant layoffs – Sculley relieved Jobs of his duties as head of the Macintosh division.[54] He later claimed that being fired from Apple what the best thing that could happen to him; “The heaviness of being successful was replaced by the lightness of being a beginner again, less sure about everything. It freed me to enter one of the most creative periods of my life.”[55]

[edit]NeXT Computer

Steve Jobs on computer graphics - Interview excerpt from 1995.ogg
Steve Jobs on computer graphics. Interview excerpt from 1995.[56]
Black equipment on a teal blue desk. At left a monitor and at right a cube, both with small NeXT logos and in front a keyboard that says "Propriete CERN". Resting on the keyboard is a copy of "Information Management: A Proposal," and to its right is a book, probably "Enquire Within upon Everything". A partly peeled off label on the cube says, "This machine is a server. DO NOT POWER IT DOWN!!"
The NeXT used byTim Berners-Lee atCERN that became the first server in theWorld Wide Web.

Around the same time, Jobs founded another computer company, NeXT Computer. Like theApple Lisa, the NeXT workstation was technologically advanced; however, it was largely dismissed by industry as cost-prohibitive[citation needed]. Among those who could afford it, however, the NeXT workstation garnered a strong following because of its technical strengths, chief among them itsobject-oriented software development system[citation needed]. Jobs marketed NeXT products to the scientific and academic fields because of the innovative, experimental new technologies it incorporated (such as the Mach kernel, the digital signal processor chip, and the built-in Ethernet port)[citation needed].

The NeXTcube was described by Jobs as an "interpersonal"[Need quotation to verify] computer, which he believed was the next step after "personal"[Need quotation to verify] computing. That is, if computers could allow people to communicate and collaborate together in an easy way, it would solve many of the problems that "personal" computing had come up against.[citation needed]

During a time when e-mail for most people was plain text, Jobs loved to demo the NeXT's e-mail system,NeXTMail, as an example of his "interpersonal" philosophy[citation needed]. NeXTMail was one of the first to support universally visible, clickable embedded graphics and audio within e-mail[citation needed].

Jobs ran NeXT with an obsession for aesthetic perfection, as evidenced[original research?] by such things as the NeXTcube's magnesium case. This put considerable strain on NeXT's hardware division, and in 1993, after having sold only 50,000 machines, NeXT transitioned fully to software development with the release ofNeXTSTEP/Intel.[citation needed]

[edit]Pixar and Disney

In 1986, Jobs bought The Graphics Group (later renamed Pixar) from Lucasfilm's computer graphics division for the price of $10 million, $5 million of which was given to the company as capital.[57]

The new company, which was originally based at Lucasfilm's Kerner Studios in San Rafael, California, but has since relocated to Emeryville, California, was initially intended to be a high-end graphics hardware developer. After years of unprofitability selling the Pixar Image Computer, it contracted with Disney to produce a number of computer-animated feature films, which Disney would co-finance and distribute.

The first film produced by the partnership, Toy Story, brought fame and critical acclaim to the studio when it was released in 1995. Over the next 15 years, under Pixar's creative chief John Lasseter, the company would produce the box-office hits A Bug's Life (1998), Toy Story 2 (1999), Monsters, Inc. (2001), Finding Nemo(2003), The Incredibles (2004), Cars (2006), Ratatouille (2007), WALL-E (2008), Up (2009) and Toy Story 3(2010). Finding Nemo, The Incredibles, Ratatouille, WALL-E, Up and Toy Story 3 each received the Academy Award for Best Animated Feature, an award introduced in 2001.

In the years 2003 and 2004, as Pixar's contract with Disney was running out, Jobs and Disney chief executiveMichael Eisner tried but failed to negotiate a new partnership,[58] and in early 2004 Jobs announced that Pixar would seek a new partner to distribute its films once its contract with Disney expired.

In October 2005, Bob Iger replaced Eisner at Disney, and Iger quickly worked to patch up relations with Jobs and Pixar. On January 24, 2006, Jobs and Iger announced that Disney had agreed to purchase Pixar in an all-stock transaction worth $7.4 billion. Once the deal closed, Jobs became The Walt Disney Company's largest single shareholder with approximately 7% of the company's stock.[17] Jobs's holdings in Disney far exceed those of Eisner, who holds 1.7%, and of Disney family member Roy E. Disney, who until his 2009 death held about 1% of the company's stock and whose criticisms of Eisner – especially that he soured Disney's relationship with Pixar – accelerated Eisner's ousting. Jobs joined the company's board of directors upon completion of the merger. Jobs also helps oversee Disney and Pixar's combined animation businesses with a seat on a special six-man steering committee.

[edit]Return to Apple

Full-length portrait of man about fifty wearing jeans and a black turtleneck shirt, standing in front of a dark curtain with a white Apple logo
Jobs on stage atMacworld Conference & Expo, San Francisco, January 11, 2005

In 1996, Apple announced that it would buy NeXT for $429 million. The deal was finalized in late 1996,[59] bringing Jobs back to the company he had co-founded. Jobs became de facto chief after then-CEO Gil Amelio was ousted in July. He was formally named interim chief executive in September 1997.[60] In March 1998, to concentrate Apple's efforts on returning to profitability, Jobs terminated a number of projects, such as Newton, Cyberdog, and OpenDoc. In the coming months, many employees developed a fear of encountering Jobs while riding in the elevator, "afraid that they might not have a job when the doors opened. The reality was that Jobs' summary executions were rare, but a handful of victims was enough to terrorize a whole company."[61] Jobs also changed the licensing program forMacintosh clones, making it too costly for the manufacturers to continue making machines.

With the purchase of NeXT, much of the company's technology found its way into Apple products, most notably NeXTSTEP, which evolved into Mac OS X. Under Jobs's guidance the company increased sales significantly with the introduction of the iMac and other new products; since then, appealing designs and powerful branding have worked well for Apple. At the 2000 Macworld Expo, Jobs officially dropped the "interim" modifier from his title at Apple and became permanent CEO.[62] Jobs quipped at the time that he would be using the title 'iCEO.'[63]

In recent years, the company has branched out, introducing and improving upon other digital appliances. With the introduction of the iPod portable music player, iTunes digital music software, and the iTunes Store, the company made forays into consumer electronics and music distribution. In 2007, Apple entered the cellular phone business with the introduction of the iPhone, a multi-touch display cell phone, which also included the features of an iPod and, with its own mobile browser, revolutionized the mobile browsing scene. While stimulating innovation, Jobs also reminds his employees that "real artists ship",[64] by which he means that delivering working products on time is as important as innovation and attractive design.

Jobs is both admired and criticized for his consummate skill at persuasion and salesmanship, which has been dubbed the "reality distortion field" and is particularly evident during his keynote speeches (colloquially known as "Stevenotes") at Macworld Expos and at Apple's own Worldwide Developers Conferences.

In 2005, Jobs responded to criticism of Apple's poor recycling programs for e-waste in the U.S. by lashing out at environmental and other advocates at Apple's Annual Meeting in Cupertino in April. However, a few weeks later, Apple announced it would take back iPods for free at its retail stores. The Computer TakeBack Campaignresponded by flying a banner from a plane over the Stanford University graduation at which Jobs was the commencement speaker.[14] The banner read "Steve — Don't be a mini-player recycle all e-waste". In 2006, he further expanded Apple's recycling programs to any U.S. customer who buys a new Mac. This program includes shipping and "environmentally friendly disposal" of their old systems.[65]


In August 2011, Jobs resigned as CEO of Apple, but remained at the company as chairman of the company's board.[66][67] Hours after the announcement, Apple Inc. (AAPL) shares dropped 5% in after-hour trading.[68] The relatively small drop, when considering the importance of Jobs to Apple, was associated with the fact that Jobs' health had been in the news for several years, and he was on medical leave since January 2011.[69] It was believed, according to Forbes, that the impact would be felt in a negative way beyond Apple, including at The Walt Disney Company where Jobs serves as director.[70] In after-hour trading on the day of the announcement, Walt Disney Co. (DIS) shares dropped 1.5%.[71]

[edit]Business life


Even though Jobs earned only $1 a year as CEO of Apple,[72] he holds 5.426 million Apple shares, as well as 138 million shares in Disney (which he had received in exchange for Disney's acquisition of Pixar).[73] Forbeshas estimated his net wealth at $8.3 billion in 2010, making him the 42nd wealthiest American.[74]

[edit]Stock options backdating issue

In 2001, Steve Jobs was granted stock options in the amount of 7.5 million shares of Apple with an exercise price of $18.30, which allegedly should have been $21.10, thereby incurring taxable income of $20,000,000 that he did not report as income. This indicated backdating. Apple overstated its earnings by that same amount. If found liable, Jobs might have faced a number of criminal charges and civil penalties. Apple claimed that the options were originally granted at a special board meeting. Furthermore, the investigation is focusing on false dating of the options resulting in a retroactive $20 million increase in the exercise price. The case is the subject of active criminal and civil government investigations,[75] though an independent internal Apple investigation completed on December 29, 2006, found that Jobs was unaware of these issues and that the options granted to him were returned without being exercised in 2003.[76] On July 1, 2008, a $7 billion class action suit was filed against several members of the Apple Board of Directors for revenue lost due to the alleged securities fraud.[77][78]

[edit]Management style

Shoulder-high portrait of two middle aged men, the one on left wearing a blue dress shirt and suitcoat, the one on right wearing a black turtleneck shirt and with his glasses pushed back onto his head and holding a phone facing them with an Apple logo visible on its back
Jobs demonstrating the iPhone 4 to Russian President Dmitry Medvedev on June 23, 2010

Much has been made of Jobs' aggressive and demanding personality.Fortune wrote that he "is considered one of Silicon Valley's leadingegomaniacs."[79] Commentaries on his temperamental style can be found in Mike Moritz's The Little Kingdom, one of the few authorized biographies of Jobs; The Second Coming of Steve Jobs, by Alan Deutschman; andiCon: Steve Jobs, by Jeffrey S. Young & William L. Simon. In 1993, Jobs made Fortune's list of America's Toughest Bosses in regard to his leadership of NeXT. Cofounder Dan'l Lewin was quoted in Fortune as saying of that period, "The highs were unbelievable . . . [b]ut the lows were unimaginable," to which Jobs's office replied that his personality had changed since then.[80]

Jef Raskin, a former colleague, once said that Jobs "would have made an excellent king of France," alluding to Jobs' compelling and larger-than-life persona.[81]

Jobs has always aspired to position Apple and its products at the forefront of the information technology industry by foreseeing and setting trends, at least in innovation and style. He summed up that self-concept at the end of his keynote speech at the Macworld Conference and Expo in January 2007 by quoting ice hockey legendWayne Gretzky:[82]

There's an old Wayne Gretzky quote that I love. 'I skate to where the puck is going to be, not where it has been.' And we've always tried to do that at Apple. Since the very very beginning. And we always will.
—Steve Jobs

Floyd Norman said that at Pixar, Jobs was a "mature, mellow individual" and never interfered with the creative process of the filmmakers.[83]

In 2005, Steve Jobs banned all books published by John Wiley & Sons from Apple Stores in response to their publishing an unauthorized biography, iCon: Steve Jobs.[84] In its 2010 annual earnings report, Wiley said it had "closed a deal ... to make its titles available for the iPad."[85]


Jobs is listed as either primary inventor or co-inventor in 338 US patents or patent applications related to a range of technologies from actual computer and portable devices to user interfaces (including touch-based), speakers, keyboards, power adapters, staircases, clasps, sleeves, lanyards and packages.[86][87]


After Bloomberg accidentally published Jobs' obituary in 2008, Arik Hesseldahl of BusinessWeek magazine noted that "Jobs isn’t widely known for his association with philanthropic causes", compared to Bill Gates' efforts.[88] After resuming control of Apple in 1997, Jobs eliminated all corporate philanthropy programs.[89]

[edit]Personal life

Jobs married Laurene Powell, on March 18, 1991. Presiding over the wedding was the Zen Buddhist monkKobun Chino Otogawa.[90] The couple have a son and two daughters.[91] Jobs also has a daughter, Lisa Brennan-Jobs (born 1978), from his relationship with Bay Area painter Chrisann Brennan.[92] She briefly raised their daughter on welfare when Jobs denied paternity, claiming that he was sterile; he later acknowledged paternity.[92]

In the unauthorized biography, The Second Coming of Steve Jobs, author Alan Deutschman reports that Jobs once dated Joan Baez. Deutschman quotes Elizabeth Holmes, a friend of Jobs from his time at Reed College, as saying she "believed that Steve became the lover of Joan Baez in large measure because Baez had been the lover of Bob Dylan." In another unauthorized biography, iCon: Steve Jobs by Jeffrey S. Young & William L. Simon, the authors suggest that Jobs might have married Baez, but her age at the time (41) meant it was unlikely the couple could have children.

Jobs is also a Beatles fan. He has referred to them on more than one occasion at Keynotes and also was interviewed on a showing of a Paul McCartney concert. When asked about his business model on 60 Minutes, he replied:[93]

My model for business is The Beatles: They were four guys that kept each other's negative tendencies in check; they balanced each other. And the total was greater than the sum of the parts. Great things in business are not done by one person, they are done by a team of people.

In 1982, Jobs bought an apartment in The San Remo, an apartment building in New York City with a politically progressive reputation, where Demi Moore, Steven Spielberg, Steve Martin, and Princess Yasmin Aga Khan, daughter of Rita Hayworth, also had apartments. With the help of I.M. Pei, Jobs spent years renovating his apartment in the top two floors of the building's north tower, only to sell it almost two decades later to U2 singerBono. Jobs had never moved in.[94][95]

In 1984, Jobs purchased a 17,000-square-foot (1,600 m2), 14-bedroom Spanish Colonial mansion, designed by George Washington Smith, in Woodside, California (also known as Jackling House). Although it reportedly remained in an almost unfurnished state, Jobs lived in the mansion for almost ten years. According to reports, he kept an old BMW motorcycle in the living room, and let Bill Clinton use it in 1998. Since the early 1990s, Jobs has lived in a house in the Old Palo Alto neighborhood of Palo Alto. President Clinton dined with Jobs and 14 Silicon Valley CEOs there on August 7, 1996 on a meal catered by Greens Restaurant.[96][97] Clinton returned the favor and Jobs, who was a Democratic donor, slept in the Lincoln bedroom of the White House.[98]

Jobs allowed Jackling House to fall into a state of disrepair, planning to demolish the house and build a smaller home on the property; but he met with complaints from local preservationists over his plans. In June 2004, the Woodside Town Council gave Jobs approval to demolish the mansion, on the condition that he advertise the property for a year to see if someone would move it to another location and restore it. A number of people expressed interest, including several with experience in restoring old property, but no agreements to that effect were reached. Later that same year, a local preservationist group began seeking legal action to prevent demolition. In January 2007 Jobs was denied the right to demolish the property, by a court decision.[99] The court decision was overturned on appeal in March 2010 and the mansion was demolished beginning February 2011.[100]

Jobs usually wears a black long-sleeved mock turtleneck made by St. Croix, Levi's 501 blue jeans, and New Balance 991 sneakers.[101] He is a pescetarian, one whose diet includes fish but no other meat.[102][103]

His car is a silver 2006 Mercedes SL 55 AMG, which does not display its license plates.[104][105]

Jobs had a public war of words with Dell Computer CEO Michael Dell, starting when Jobs first criticized Dell for making "un-innovative beige boxes."[106] On October 6, 1997, in a Gartner Symposium, when Michael Dell was asked what he would do if he owned then-troubled Apple Computer, he said "I'd shut it down and give the money back to the shareholders."[107] In 2006, Steve Jobs sent an email to all employees when Apple's market capitalization rose above Dell's. The email read:[108]

Team, it turned out that Michael Dell wasn't perfect at predicting the future. Based on today's stock market close, Apple is worth more than Dell. Stocks go up and down, and things may be different tomorrow, but I thought it was worth a moment of reflection today. Steve.


In mid-2004, Jobs announced to his employees that he had been diagnosed with a cancerous tumor in hispancreas.[109] The prognosis for pancreatic cancer is usually very poor; Jobs, however, stated that he had a rare, far less aggressive type known as islet cell neuroendocrine tumor.[109] After initially resisting the idea of conventional medical intervention and embarking on a special diet to thwart the disease, Jobs underwent apancreaticoduodenectomy (or "Whipple procedure") in July 2004 that appeared to successfully remove the tumor.[110][111] Jobs apparently did not require nor receive chemotherapy or radiation therapy.[109][112] During Jobs' absence, Timothy D. Cook, head of worldwide sales and operations at Apple, ran the company.[109]

In early August 2006, Jobs delivered the keynote for Apple's annualWorldwide Developers Conference. His "thin, almost gaunt" appearance and unusually "listless" delivery,[113][114] together with his choice to delegate significant portions of his keynote to other presenters, inspired a flurry of media and Internet speculation about his health.[115] In contrast, according to an Ars Technica journal report, WWDC attendees who saw Jobs in person said he "looked fine."[116] Following the keynote, an Apple spokesperson said that "Steve's health is robust."[117]

Two years later, similar concerns followed Jobs' 2008 WWDC keynote address.[118] Apple officials stated Jobs was victim to a "common bug" and was taking antibiotics,[119] while others surmised his cachectic appearance was due to the Whipple procedure.[120] During a July conference call discussing Apple earnings, participants responded to repeated questions about Steve Jobs' health by insisting that it was a "private matter." Others, however, voiced the opinion that shareholders had a right to know more, given Jobs' hands-on approach to running his company.[121] The New York Times published an article based on an off-the-record phone conversation with Jobs, noting that "while his health issues have amounted to a good deal more than 'a common bug,' they weren’t life-threatening and he doesn’t have a recurrence of cancer."[122]

On August 28, 2008, Bloomberg mistakenly published a 2500-word obituary of Jobs in its corporate news service, containing blank spaces for his age and cause of death. (News carriers customarily stockpile up-to-date obituaries to facilitate news delivery in the event of a well-known figure's untimely death.) Although the error was promptly rectified, many news carriers and blogs reported on it,[123][124][125] intensifying rumors concerning Jobs' health.[126] Jobs responded at Apple's September 2008 Let's Rock keynote by quoting Mark Twain: "Reports of my death are greatly exaggerated."[127] At a subsequent media event, Jobs concluded his presentation with a slide reading "110/70", referring to his blood pressure, stating he would not address further questions about his health.[128]

On December 16, 2008, Apple announced that marketing vice-president Phil Schiller would deliver the company's final keynote address at the Macworld Conference and Expo 2009, again reviving questions about Jobs' health.[129][130][131] In a statement given on January 5, 2009 on,[132] Jobs said that he had been suffering from a "hormone imbalance" for several months.[133] On January 14, 2009, in an internal Apple memo, Jobs wrote that in the previous week he had "learned that my health-related issues are more complex than I originally thought" and announced a six-month leave of absence until the end of June 2009 to allow him to better focus on his health. Tim Cook, who had previously acted as CEO in Jobs' 2004 absence, became acting CEO of Apple,[134] with Jobs still involved with "major strategic decisions."[134]

In April 2009, Jobs underwent a liver transplant at Methodist University Hospital Transplant Institute in Memphis, Tennessee.[135][136] Jobs' prognosis was "excellent."[136]

On January 17, 2011, one and a half years after Jobs returned from his liver transplant, Apple announced that he had been granted a medical leave of absence. Jobs announced his leave in a letter to employees, stating his decision was made "so he could focus on his health." As during his 2009 medical leave, Apple announced thatTim Cook would run day-to-day operations and that Jobs would continue to be involved in major strategic decisions at the company.[137][138] Despite the leave, he made appearances at the iPad 2 launch event (March 2), the WWDC keynote introducing iCloud (June 6), and before the Cupertino city council (June 7).[139]

Jobs announced his resignation from his role as Apple's CEO on August 24, 2011. In the letter, Jobs wrote that he could "no longer meet [his] duties and expectations as Apple’s CEO."[140]


On October 5, 2011, Apple released a statement that Jobs had passed away.[142][143]


He was awarded the National Medal of Technology by President Ronald Reagan in 1984 with Steve Wozniak(among the first people to ever receive the honor),[144] and a Jefferson Award for Public Service in the category "Greatest Public Service by an Individual 35 Years or Under" (a.k.a. the Samuel S. Beard Award) in 1987.[145]On November 27, 2007, Jobs was named the most powerful person in business by Fortune Magazine.[146] On December 5, 2007, California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger and First Lady Maria Shriver inducted Jobs into the California Hall of Fame, located at The California Museum for History, Women and the Arts.[147]

In August 2009, Jobs was selected as the most admired entrepreneur among teenagers in a survey by Junior Achievement.[148] On November 5, 2009, Jobs was named the CEO of the decade by Fortune Magazine.[149]In September 2011, Jobs was ranked No.17 on Forbes: The World's Most Powerful People.[150] In December 2010, the Financial Times named Jobs its person of the year for 2010, ending its essay by stating, "In his autobiography, John Sculley, the former PepsiCo executive who once ran Apple, said this of the ambitions of the man he had pushed out: 'Apple was supposed to become a wonderful consumer products company. This was a lunatic plan. High-tech could not be designed and sold as a consumer product.' How wrong can you be".[151]

[edit]In popular culture

Due to his young age, great wealth, and charisma, after Apple's founding Jobs became a symbol of his company and industry. When TIME named the computer as the 1982 "Machine of the Year", it published a long profile of him as "the most famous maestro of the micro."[152][153] Jobs was prominently featured in three films about the history of the personal computing industry:

Jobs was depicted in the first series of the BBC Television comedy Harry & Paul as part of The Computer Tycoons along with Bill Gates.[154]

After his resignation as Apple's CEO, Jobs was characterized as the Thomas Edison and Henry Ford of his time.[155][156]


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Business positions
Preceded by
Gil Amelio
CEO of Apple
Succeeded by
Tim Cook
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